Independence Day 2022: India is celebrating 75 years of independence this yr and the nation’s inside boundaries have undergone super adjustments since 1947. The most recent in line is the bifurcation of Jammu and Kashmir and the creation of two new Union Territories (UTs) in August 2019.
Nonetheless, the division of Jammu and Kashmir was not the most important change within the inside boundaries of India. The Indian map noticed important adjustments in 1956, when an official States Reorganization Act was enacted.
This is a have a look at how the map of India has modified since 1947.
1947 – 1949
India’s exterior borders have modified principally solely thrice – when Goa was integrated into the Indian Union in 1961, Pondicherry in 1962 and Sikkim in 1975. The territories included within the nation through the British interval had been people who gained independence on August. 15, 1947. Nonetheless, there are a lot of areas that had been later included within the map of India. Within the interval 1947 and 1949, a number of states together with Kashmir, Hyderabad, Junagadh, Manipur and Tripura grew to become a part of the union.
Small states in India had been absorbed into bigger territorial areas by 1950. This alteration could be referred to as the transformation of India from a dominion to a republic of states. The brand new Structure of India, which got here into pressure on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The brand new republic was additionally declared a “Union of States”.
The 1950 Structure distinguishes between three foremost sorts of states and a category of territories –
PART A STATES It was a former governorate province of British India, ruled by a governor appointed by the president and an elected state legislature. The 9 Half A states had been Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh (previously Central Provinces and Berar), Madras, Orissa, Punjab (previously East Punjab), Uttar Pradesh (previously United Provinces) and West Bengal.
PART B STATES – which had been previously princely states or unions of princely states, dominated by a Rajpramukh, who was often the ruler of a constituent state and an elected legislature. The Rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India. The eight Half B states had been Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Central India, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan, Saurashtra and Travancore-Cochin.
half c says – consisting of former Chief Commissioners’ provinces and a few princely states, and every ruled by a Chief Commissioner appointed by the President of India. The ten Half C states had been Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch, Manipur, Tripura and Vindhya Pradesh.
The one Half D area was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central authorities.
The state of Andhra was shaped in 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras state (now often known as Chennai). The state was made up of two distinct cultural areas – Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra. Andhra State didn’t embrace all Telugu talking areas because it excluded some in Hyderabad State.
The formation of the primary “linguistic state” paved the way in which for the creation of extra such states and gave these states the chance to develop independently, linguistically and economically, every with a state to help.
Three years later, below the States Reorganization Act of 1956, Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State to kind Andhra Pradesh.
Within the largest reorganization of India’s territories, the nation was organized into 14 states and 6 union territories. It was then that the Official States Reorganization Act was enacted. This act was enacted on thirty first August, 1956.
Earlier than coming into pressure on 1 November, a big modification was made to the Structure of India. Below the Seventh Modification, the present terminology of Half A, Half B, Half C and Half D states had been modified. The excellence between Half A and Half B states was dropped, changing into identified merely as “America”. A brand new kind of entity, the Union Territory, modified the classification as a Half C or Half D state.
On 1 November 1956, the Bombay State was reconstituted below the States Reorganization Act on Linguistic grounds, to incorporate numerous areas together with the states of Saurashtra and Kutch, which ceased to exist. On 1 Might 1960, Bombay State was dissolved and divided into two states – Gujarat and Maharashtra on linguistic traces.
This got here after large protests and the Samyukta Maharashtra agitation, which claimed the lives of 107 folks.
The Indian Parliament handed the Punjab Reorganization Act on 18 September 1966, which dissolved the previous state of East Punjab. Subsequently, a contemporary state of Punjab and a contemporary state of Haryana had been created. The territory was transferred to Himachal Pradesh, which was then a union territory.
In the meantime, the town of Chandigarh grew to become a brief union territory to function the non permanent capital of each Punjab and Haryana. This separation was the results of the Punjabi Suba Motion, which agitated for the creation of a Punjabi-speaking state (the trendy state of Punjab). On this course of a majority Hindi talking state (Haryana) was additionally shaped.
The boundaries alongside the north-eastern border noticed many adjustments all through the Seventies.
Manipur and Tripura got statehood and the state of Meghalaya and the union territory of Mizoram had been carved out of Assam in 1972.
Three years later, a referendum held in Sikkim, till then the protectorate of India, voted to hitch the Indian Union as a state.
The start of two extra north-eastern states – Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh – was witnessed within the Eighties. Each the states got statehood in 1987.
In the meantime, Goa and Daman and Diu had been cut up into the state of Goa and the union territory of Daman and Diu.
The subsequent main change in Indian boundaries coincided with the flip of the millennium.
The Uttarakhand motion (incidents of state activism throughout the undivided state of Uttar Pradesh) finally resulted within the formation of Uttarakhand from throughout the undivided state of Uttar Pradesh. Uttarakhand grew to become often known as a state on 9 November 2000.
The demand for making Uttarakhand a state was first raised in Might 1938 at a particular session of the Indian Nationwide Congress held in Srinagar. The demand progressively strengthened which was adopted by a number of occasions. In 1994, the demand for a separate state finally took the type of a mass motion leading to India’s twenty seventh state by 2000.
In 2000, a marketing campaign led by the BJP for a separate state ended with the passage of the Bihar Reorganization Act, which created Jharkhand as a brand new Indian state.
In the meantime, on November 1, 2000, Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh. The demand for a separate state of Chhattisgarh first arose within the Twenties, with related calls for showing at common intervals; Nonetheless, a well-organized motion was by no means launched. A number of all-party boards had been created and often resolved round petitions, public conferences, seminars, rallies and strikes.
Within the Nineteen Nineties, the demand grew to become extra outstanding, ensuing within the formation of a statewide political platform often known as the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. The discussion board was led by Chandulal Chadrakar and arranged a number of profitable regional strikes and rallies, all of which had been supported by main political events such because the Indian Nationwide Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Get together (BJP).
The brand new Nationwide Democratic Alliance (NDA) authorities despatched a separate Chhattisgarh Invoice for approval by the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Meeting, the place it was unanimously authorized after which launched within the Lok Sabha.
The invoice was handed within the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, which allowed the creation of the state of Chhattisgarh.
On 2 June 2014, India noticed the formation of the state of Telangana. Kalvakuntala Chandrashekhar Rao was elected the primary Chief Minister of Telangana.
Again in 2013, the Congress Working Committee had unanimously handed a decision recommending the formation of a separate Telangana state. After numerous levels, the invoice was lastly tabled within the Parliament of India in February 2014. In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Invoice was handed by the Parliament of India to kind the state of Telangana, consisting of ten districts of north-western Andhra. State. The invoice obtained the assent of the President and was printed within the Gazette on 1 March 2014.
The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act, 2019 got here into pressure on October 31, 2019. A Invoice for the Act was launched within the Rajya Sabha on August 5, 2019 by the House Minister, Amit Shah and was handed on the identical day. Thereafter it was handed by the Lok Sabha on sixth August, 2019 and it received the assent of the President on ninth August, 2019.
The Act included provisions to reorganize the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir, part of the bigger area of Kashmir, which has been the topic of dispute between India, Pakistan and China since 1947, into two Indian-administered union territories. UTs) – Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh.
The Act contains 103 clauses, extends 106 central legal guidelines to union territories, repeals 153 state legal guidelines, and abolishes the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Council, amongst different issues.
The introduction of the invoice was preceded by a Presidential order that not directly amended Article 370 of the Indian Structure and revoked the particular standing of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Act additionally gave powers to the Central Authorities to move quite a lot of government orders in respect of each the Union Territories. These orders have resulted in modification or repeal of greater than 400 state and central legal guidelines in respect of Union Territories. This act has been challenged within the courtroom by way of a number of petitions.
One of the vital, nevertheless it will not be the final of the adjustments within the inside boundaries of India. Many areas throughout India nonetheless aspire for full statehood, though the depth of demand varies throughout areas and over time.
Learn additionally | Independence Day 2022: Do you know that there are two variations of the nationwide anthem? know the distinction
newest india information